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How to boot Win10 from a USB stick

June 08, 2020 — BarryK

Over the years, I have not had good experiences with Windows 10. There were a couple of posts to the "ethos" tag in this blog:

https://bkhome.org/news/201903/microsoft-fails-on-new-laptop.html

A few days ago, I accidentally wiped the Windows 10 installation on my Lenovo desktop PC, purchased early 2020. Here are some posts:

https://bkhome.org/news/202003/documentation-for-lenovo-ideacentre-510s-07icb.html

I was developing EasyDD, and accidentally wrote a EasyOS image file to the NVME drive, destroying the Win10 installation, as reported here:

https://bkhome.org/news/202006/enhancements-for-easydd-script.html

The NVME drive had four partitions. partition-1 was the fat32 esp boot partition, partition-2 was only 16MB don't know what for, partition-3 is the actual installation (ntfs C: drive), and partition-4 was a ntfs 1GB "recovery drive".

Writing the 1.3GB image file to the NVME drive destroyed the GPT (GUID Partition Table) and the first three partitions. However, partition-4 was still intact, and I thought that I could use it to reinstall Win10.

There is a secondary, backup, GPT at the end of the drive, so running "gdisk nvme0n1" I was able to use the secondary GPT and restore the first GPT.

But no way could I figure out how to use partition-4 to recover Windows!!!

I downloaded Win10 ISO from an official Microsoft website ...and then the fun and games started.

The ISO is about 5GB, too big for a 4.7GB DVD. After some searching, the only solution is to use a double-layer DVD. There was lots of advice, including on official MS sites, to write the ISO to a USB-stick.

Boot the ISO from a USB-stick, reasonable yes? No!!! I tried and tried, googled, heaps of other frustrated people reported the same problem, it won't boot. After some hours, I discovered that MS has used the udf filesystem for the ISO, which the UEFI-firmware on my desktop PC doesn't recognise. And, it seems, same situation for everyone else.

Why use udf, why not iso9660? There is a file, "install.wim", that is 4.2GB, however, iso9660 only supports files up to 4GB. hence, one or two years ago, MS changed to udf. Note, fat32 also has the 4GB file-size limitation.

Can't boot from a USB-stick, that is bad news. What to do?

Well, we can make a Win10 bootable USB-stick, with some ingenuity. What I did was use a EasyOS USB-stick, and gutted it.

EasyOS on a USB flash drive has two partitions, a 640MB fat32 esp boot partition, with reFind boot manager, and a second ext4 partition that fills the drive.

I reformatted the second partition as ntfs, and copied the contents of the ISO file to it. Like this, where sdb2 is the mounted USB-stick second partition:

# mkdir mntpt
# mount -t ntfs /dev/sdb2 /mnt/sdb2 (or in Easy just click on the partition)
# mount -t udf Win10_2004_EnglishInternational_x64.iso mntpt
# cp -a mntpt/* /mnt/sdb2/
# sync
# umount mntpt
# umount /mnt/sdb2 (or in Easy just click the close-box)

In the first partition, I deleted everything except the "EFI" folder, and in /mnt/sdb1/EFI/BOOT/drivers, deleted 'ext4_x64.efi' and copied /usr/share/refind/drivers_x64/ntfs_x64.efi to /mnt/sdb1/EFI/BOOT/drivers (you will need reFind package installed).

/mnt/sdb1/EFI/BOOT only needs 'BOOTX64.EFI' and 'refind.conf', and I edited the latter to only have this:

timeout 10
textonly on
textmode 0
scanfor manual
menuentry "Windows 10 USB" {
volume usbwin10ntfs
loader \efi\boot\bootx64.efi
}

Where "usbwin10ntfs" is the label that I assigned to the second partition:

# blkid /dev/sdb2
/dev/sdb2: LABEL="usbwin10ntfs" UUID="47360BD96837F0BC" TYPE="ntfs"

...I used Gparted to set that label, but whatever it was before would be OK, no need to change it.

Rebooted the PC, holding down the <F12> key to get the UEFI boot menu, and there was the USB-stick, and was able to boot Win10. However, no way could I find out how to use that partition-4 to perform a recovery, had to do a fresh install to partition-3. The install wrote appropriate stuff into the partition-1 fat32 boot partition also.

I was able to jump through these hoops in Linux, but Windows users, well, maybe their only solution is to use a double-layer DVD, and reinstall Win10.   

Tags: tech

Documentation for Lenovo Ideacentre 510S 07ICB

March 22, 2020 — BarryK

GCMartin expressed interest in this PC. He asked for the Blowfish speed test result in HardInfo, and I reported "1.83", which he responded is very good.

For anyone who might be interested, all documentation is online. The PC only comes with a tiny piece of paper with getting started instructions. The PDFs are here:

https://pcsupport.lenovo.com/au/en/products/desktops-and-all-in-ones/500-series/510s-07icb/documentation/doc_userguide 

Here are earlier reports on this PC:

https://bkhome.org/news/202003/multi-booting-buster-pyro-and-windows-on-new-pc.html

https://bkhome.org/news/202003/how-many-cores-does-an-intel-i3-cpu-have.html

https://bkhome.org/news/202003/mke2fs-created-wrong-block-size.html 

Tags: tech

The resurrection of GOOSEE Diagrammer

March 12, 2020 — BarryK

Back in 1999, I wrote a book, titled "Flow design for embedded systems", published in the USA by R&D Books. It describes a diagramming technique that I invented, for designing code, prior to actual coding. There was a floppy disk attached inside the back cover, with a Windows 32-bit application called "GOOFEE Diagrammer".

The book is out of print, however, used copies are available, for example at Amazon:

https://www.amazon.com/Flow-Design-Embedded-Systems-Object-Oriented/dp/087930555X

I received an email from Scott M., asking if I have the companion disk. Scott collects old books, and he has two copies of my book, without the floppy disk. I replied that around 2009, when I lived near the small town of Perenjori in Western Australia, my house was burgled, and my 4TB external backup drive was stolen, which had a lot of that old stuff in it. But, I told him that I would look and see if the companion disk is archived somewhere else, such as in a CD/DVD.

I have an old computer, with Cyrix 5x86 CPU, Zip-drive, and 20GB IDE hard drive, that was my main workhorse in 1999. I got rid of most of my old computers when left Perenjori, however hung onto that one. I did take a few things out of it at some time, so it no longer works. So, need to be able to access that old IDE drive, and I even found an old 100MB Zip disk, that I think has GOOFEE development on it.

So I bought one of these, for AU$28:

https://www.austin.net.au/simplecom-sa491-3-in-1-usb-3-0-to-2-5-3-5-5-25-sata-ide-adapter-with-power-supply.html

img0

...the photo shows it plugged into my Zip drive. Note, it has a IDE power plug as well. On the right is the cable to the mains power adapter, and centre cable is the USB3 cable to the PC.

Unfortunately, my 100MB Zip disk doesn't work, Inserts OK, whirring sounds, but nothing more. The 20GB IDE HD works fine.

Yes, I found the companion disk, but also found the development files for "GOOSEE Diagrammer". GOOFEE is an acronym for "Graphical Object Orientation For Embedded Engineering". It is a GUI tool for designing a program, however, I realised that it also had the potential of also generating the code, as C code -- hence GOOSEE Diagrammer was born. GOOSEE is an ancronym for "Graphical Object Oriented Software Engineering Environment".

GOOFEE Diagrammer got mixed reviews. One guy thought that it was very useful for code design where he worked, and suggested an alternative acronym "Graphical Obfuscation Operation For Eternal Employment"!

Anyway, the C code generation part of it (introduced with GOOSEE Diagammer) never got publicly released. I lost interest, as I had moved onto "EVE"

EVE

"EVE" is an acronym for "Embedded Vector Editor", a general-purpose vector drawing application. See here (source code also available):

https://bkhome.org/archive/eve/

https://bkhome.org/archive/goosee/evemanual/evemanual.htm

https://bkhome.org/archive/goosee/evemanual/evewemanual.htm

GOOSEE Diagrammer

This extension to GOOFEE Diagrammer, with generation of C code, never got released. I think that it reached version 1.4beta1, however, I can only find version 1.3 on my old 20GB IDE hard drive. I even installed 'testdisk' via the PPM, a file recovery tool, to no avail.

'goosee.exe' is a Win32 application, and still works in Windows 10.

img1

What I found has now been uploaded. Here is an introduction:

https://bkhome.org/archive/goofee/goosee/

Example from above link:

img

User manual:

https://bkhome.org/archive/goofee/goosee_manual/manual.htm

Tarballs are available:

https://bkhome.org/archive/goofee/goofee_companion_disk.tar.gz

https://bkhome.org/archive/goofee/goosee.tar.gz

https://bkhome.org/archive/goofee/goosee_manual.tar.gz

https://bkhome.org/archive/goofee/goosee_dev.tar.gz

...the last one is the source code. GOOFEE and GOOSEE Diagrammer are written in assembly language, and require MASM, Microsoft's assembler, to compile. Which is free:

https://bkhome.org/archive/goosee/x86/winmasm.zip

Useful links here:

https://bkhome.org/archive/goosee/x86/

Is GOOSEE Diagrammer actually useful as a code design and generation tool? Or just a novelty plaything? Perhaps it depends whether your brain is "graphics oriented" or "text oriented". I do recall for me at the time, I had decided that I preferred just to code directly, no need for an intermediate design phase -- but it might be different if more than one person is working on a project.  

Tags: tech

Librem 5 hardware evaluation

November 02, 2019 — BarryK

I have posted about the Librem 5 phone, the last post is here:

https://bkhome.org/news/201910/librem-5-and-pinephone-assembly.html

I have wondered about whether it is viable from the viewpoint of power consumption, and yesterday came across an evaluation of the Librem 5 hardware design, by an engineer with expertise in the hardware of this field:

https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/dnmwlc/an_electrical_engineers_opinion_on_the_librem_5/

...it also raises other concerns.

Will Purism get the phone to a point where it is basically usable? Not have to be recharged twice per day, and able to connect while on the move?

There is mention of the reality not living up to the hype, and this interview with a former employee of Purism is revealing:

https://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=Zlatan-Todoric-Interview

Small businesses, of a certain kind, depend on hype for their survival. Hype, spin, whatever word you want to use, to catch people. Quite possibly the ensnared people will be satisfied with the result.

Purism may survive and may actually deliver products that satisfy customers -- well, their laptops seem to be already achieving the latter goal. On the journey between dream and delivery, they need cash, the money must roll in, hence hype, or selling the dream, is essential.

I am reminded of an Australian TV series, "Very small business", about a business named "Worldwide Business Group", that was perpetually on the verge of financial collapse. The guy running this business published obscure magazines that nobody read, and at the start of the series he wanted to hire a journalist -- he found a guy who was a professional journalist but had had a mental breakdown, and was wanting to get back into journalism -- he was taken on on-probation, or whatever word you would use when you work for no pay.

Here is a trailer for the series, very low resolution (144p):

https://www.youtube.com/watch?reload=9&v=uF_4Sdrp864

...I think that you need to join i-Tunes to view the full episodes. There was a later series "Back in very small business", that I have not seen.

Tags: tech

Librem 5 and Pinephone assembly

October 15, 2019 — BarryK

The first prototypes of these phones are built and shipped to some developers.

The Librem 5 is planned to be manufactured in batches that will be progressively refined. The first one is named "Aspen", to be followed by "Birch". Here is a video showing Aspen being disassembled and reassembled:

https://www.invidio.us/watch?v=74dhBddET2E

Interesting, it has no heatsink. A heatpipe is planned for Birch. The speaker, Tod Weaver, states that he has to charge the battery twice per day, but is hoping it will eventually get down to once per day. That would be very light usage without heatsink. I wonder how many hours of actual usage in the day?

Whatever, that is so far off we expect with modern phones. My Huawei rarely gets below 90% in a day, in which I might, say, go on a train ride to the city and be browsing all the way there and back. If drive somewhere and use the GPS, it does consume a bit more.

The SoC is, I think 28nm technology, and I think I read that late in 2020 they plan to progress to a 14nm NXP SoC. The two m.2 sockets with external modem and ...what's in the other socket, can't remember ...anyway, that configuration is going to be current-hungry.

img1

The Pinephone is an alternative. They both have modem separate from the SoC, in the case of the Pinephone it is soldered in, so the phone is much slimmer. Here is a video showing assembly of the first prototype:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VyeD1sfQNoM

Interesting, it looks like the back of the LCD is being used as the SoC heatsink. I haven't found any information on battery life, but doubt that it will be good news ...but premature to give any opinion.

img2

One good thing about the Pinephone, it has a modem with frequencies suitable for Australia.

Tags: tech

Librem5 phone first batch

September 27, 2019 — BarryK

The first batch of Librem5 phones has been manufactured. This is their first iteration, somewhat larger than the planned final version to allow for some experimentation, for example with the antenna.

I have posted a few times about this phone, for example:

http://bkhome.org/news/201806/librem-5-an-open-source-linux-phone.html

Purism announcement:

https://puri.sm/posts/first-librem-5-smartphones-are-shipping/

img1

And here is an FAQ about the first batch:

https://puri.sm/posts/librem-5-batch-faq/

I had gone off this phone, in favour of the Pinephone, as the Librem5 did not have a modem with frequencies suitable for Australia. However, they have just announced that they will be supporting the BM818 modem -- this has a "T1" variant that supports the B28 band that we require for Telstra. However, it is not yet known whether the phone will support the T1 variant. I suppose one problem will be the antenna design, to handle all the different frequencies. 

EDIT 2019-10-04:
Here is a video, showing using phone, first batch:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gvnt78mK-Ac  

Tags: tech

Car ball and nut steering

April 30, 2019 — BarryK

A different blog post from usual!

Modern cars have "rack & pinion" steering, which gives tight (minimal sloppiness or deadzone).

Many years ago, cars had "ball & nut", or "recirculating ball", steering. The main problem with this is a deadzone, or sloppiness, which got worse as the linkakes/bushes wore.

I was reminded of this recently, when read about the new 2019 Suzuki Jimny, and posted to this blog:

http://bkhome.org/news/201903/new-suzuki-2019-jimny-4x4.html

I was surprised that this Jimny still has ball & nut steering.

Back in the 70's I owned an early Suzuki 4wd, one of the "LJ" series, with a 2-stroke engine. I recall, it was dangerous on wet roads. Especially a wet road with tight bends -- I found that the steering would get out of my control, and I had to slow right down.

In the mid to late 80's, I owned an old Holden, an "EH" model I think, a 3-speed automatic. I was cash-strapped at the time, and bought this secondhand. Don't recall what price I paid, but do remember selling it for AU$300.

It had various problems, such as tending to overheat -- but they made engines out of iron in those days, it could survive repeated overheating.

It had the old recirculating ball steering, don't recall if it was power steering. It was worn, with considerable slack. Near where I lived, there was a dirt road, that turned to mud when it rained. I discovered that when driving home on that road, and the car lurched to the right, the steering wheel snatched violently out of my hands. I pulled the wheel left, and it got snatched out of my hands again as the car lurched to the left.

Thus I zigzagged across the road, until I had reduced speed to a crawl.

The problem was the tyres sinking slightly into the mud. If the front tyres turn very slightly from true forward direction, a small wall of mud then forces them to turn more. Which can happen due to the slackness in the steering linkages. When the wheels have been twisted more than a few degrees, the wheels get violently pushed to the side, and the steering wheel spins out of my control.

So, pretty awful type of steering, hey! However, I am over-dramatizing the risk. My Holden was old and the steering linkages very worn. If I had got it fixed, replaced some bushes, the steering slack would have tightened up considerably, and I would probably have been able to race straight through that muddy road.

Apart from the Jimny, apparently some trucks still have this, I don't know about other 4wd vehicles.

With the Suzuki 4wd cars, a popular after-market addon was a "steering damper", a hydraulic mechanism that will minimise the kind of scenario that I have described above.

It seems that Suzuki added it to the Jimny 4wd series, and it is in the 2019 model. Thank goodness. There is also power steering, so it would seem that the two mechanisms would be fighting each other -- well, apparently, it does cause the steering to have a "dead" feel, with no feedback from the wheels.

Why hasn't Suzuki gone over to rack & pinion steering for the Jimny? I don't know, there must be reasons. I don't know enough about the topic to guess why. More info here:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steering

Quoting:

The recirculating ball mechanism has the advantage of a much greater mechanical advantage, so that it was found on larger, heavier vehicles while the rack and pinion was originally limited to smaller and lighter ones; due to the almost universal adoption of power steering, however, this is no longer an important advantage, leading to the increasing use of rack and pinion on newer cars.

The steering damper does make driving safer, however there is another concern. The deadzone means that the front wheels are not necessarily going in the direction in which you are pointing the steering wheel. This has been observed by testers of the 2019 Jimny on highway driving, where the car tends to wander to left or right, and has to be continually corrected.
This means that the driver has to be always alert, and it does make the driving experience more tedious -- though, the continual correction does become habitual. I also briefly owned a Suzuki 1.3 litre Sierra, the model after the LJ series and before the Jimny series, and I recall this wandering problem, but I adapted to it and found highway driving to be OK, if a bit odd.

Thought that I would post these interesting observations! 

Tags: tech